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പത്രഭാഷ (Journalistic language)

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         B[p-\nI Ime¯v FÃmw hmÀ¯-I-fm-Wv.\m«p-  hmÀ¯-IÄ apX temIhmÀ¯-IÄ hsc \½-fn-te¡v F¯p-¶p. ]{X-§fpw sSen-hn-j\pw CâÀs\äpw]nSn-apdn-¡n-b-tXmsS hmÀ¯-IÄ Dണ്ടm-¡p-¶XpwhnX-cWwsN¿p-¶Xpw C¶v {]bmk-apÅ Hcp Imcy-a-Ã. Hmtcm am[y-a-§fpw hyXy-kvX-co-Xn-bn hmÀ¯-IÄ P\-§-fn-te¡v F¯n-¡p-¶p. C³s^mÀta-äo-hmbpw (Informative) FâÀsS-bvsaâmbpw  (Entertainment) hmÀ¯-Isf P\-§Ä kzoI-cn-¡p-¶p. Ch cണ്ടpwIqSn tNÀ¶ C³t^mÀtS-bvsaâ v (Infortainment) hmÀ¯-IÄ¡mWv C¶p Unamâ.v BtKm-fo-I-c-W-¯nsâ C¡m-e¯v hmÀ¯-IÄ¡v kaq-ls¯ ià-ambn kzm[o\n¡m³ km[n-¡p-¶p. tIc-f-¯nse ØnXnbpw adn-¨-Ã. Hcp Uk\v tase ]{X-§-fpw, Sn.-hn.Nm\-ep-Ifpw C¶v ae-bm-fn-ക്കുണ്ട് . FÃmw kaq-l-¯n ià-amb kwth-Z-\-£-aXbpÅXp Xs¶.

sXm®q-dp-I-fn Hm^vskäv {]nânwKv {]Nm-c-¯n-em-hp-Ibpw CâÀs\-änsâ hchpw C´y-bn {]tXy-In¨v tIc-f-¯n Hcp {]km-[I hn¹h¯n\v XpS¡wIpdn-¨p. Bbn-c¯n F®q-än sXm®q-dp-I-fn ae-bmf KZy-`m-j-bn Dണ്ടmbhnImkw AXnsâ \qdmw hmÀjnIw Bb-t¸m-tg¡pw \ho-\-h-gn-IÄ Xnc-sª-Sp-¯p. {]kn-²o-I-c-W-§Ä Gdn-b-t¸mÄ aÕ-c-ta-J-e-bmbn AXv amdn. hmÀ¯-bnepw AXnsâ `mj-bnepw ]{X-§Ä anI¨ FUn-änwKn (Editing) \mbn {i²n¡p-¶p. ]ണ്ടp-Å-XnÂ\n¶pw hyXy-kvX-ambn ssewKn-I-Np-h-bpÅ `mj apX (Sexiast language) am\-I-`mj (Standard language) hsc tImÀ¯n-W-¡n-bpÅ Hcp ]{X-`mj (Jounalistic language) BWv C¶v D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xv. FÃm-¯n\pw am\-ZWvUw a\p-jysâ Xmev]cyw(Human interest) BWv. P\-{]nb BJym-\-¯n-eqsS ]{X-§Ä Hmtcm-cp-¯-cp-sSbpw CjvSm-\n-jvS-§-fpsS `mK-am-Ip-¶p. Cu P\-{]n-b-kw-kv¡mcw PoÀ®-am-sW¶ HcpIme-s¯ (F-^v. BÀ. eohn-kv, sU\nkv tXmwk¬, än. Fkv. Fen-bäv F¶n-hÀ 1920þI-fn P\-{]-b-kw-kv¡m-c-¯n\v FXncmbn I£n tNÀ¶-h-cm-Wv) Bi-b-§Ä C¶p XnI¨pw A{]-k-à-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. F§s\ P\-{]nbXt\Smw F¶mWv FÃm{]kn-²o-I-c-W-§fpw Ct¸mÄ Btem-Nn-¡p-¶-Xv. B sSIv\nIv IrXy-ambn `mj-bneqsS km[y-am-¡p-I-bmWv C¶v ]{X-§Ä sN¿p-¶-Xv. P\-{]n-b-Xbv¡v thണ്ട LS-I-§Ä ]{X-`m-j-bn \n¶pw \ap¡v hmbn-s¨-Sp-¡mw.

hmÀ¯-I-fn hyàX (Clarity is the first feature of journalistic language), ]pXpa (Novelty) Imcy-Im-c-W-Ôw (Causality) BIÀjWo-bX (attraction) F¶nh Dണ്ടm-bm hmb-\-¡m-csâ {i²bpw CjvShpw t\Smw. Hcp ]{X-¯n Hcp `mj-bpsS hnhn-[-am-Xr-I-IÄ ImWmw. apJy-hmÀ¯-bpsS `mj-bm-bn-cn-¡nà apJ-{]-kw-K-¯nsâ `mj.hnh-c-W-¯nsâ `mj-bà hÀ®-\-bp-tS-Xv. lmkyw \ndª `mj, kv{Xo`m-j, ]pcp-j-`m-j, kmt¦-XnI `mj, hymI-c-W-`m-j, C¡nfn `mj, ZenXv `mj C§s\ ]{X-¯nse `mj \nc-h-[n-bmWv kvt]mÀSvkv ae-bm-f-hpw, s^an-\nÌv ae-bm-fhpw, ^näv\Êv ae-bm-fhpw FÃmw ]{X-`m-j-bpsS `mK-am-Wv.

Hmtcm hÀjhpw am[ya {]hÀ¯-IÀ Dt]-£n-t¡-ണ്ടXpw ]Z-tIm-i-¯n-te¡v Iqട്ടി tNÀt¡ണ്ട--Xp-amb ]Z-§Ä {]Jym-]n-¡p¶ coXn Cw¥-ണ്ടn Ct¸m-gp-ap-ണ്ട് . AXpt]mse \½fpw ]Z-tImiw icn-s¸-Sp-t¯ണ്ട--XmWv F¶v sk_m-Ìy³ t]mfpw,]n.-Pn.bpw ]dªp (_nPp.-kn.-]n, am[y-a-§-fnse ae-bmfw F¶ teJ-\-¯n \n¶pw) A§s\ kv{SIv¨À sNbvX Hcp ]{X-`mj C\n ae-bm-f-¯n km[y-a-Ã. ka-Im-enI a-e-bmfw sshhn-[y-§-tfbpw cpNn-t`-Z-§-tfbpw BWv tXSp-¶-Xv.

]{X-§-fnse hmÀ¯m-X-e-s¡-«p-I-fn C¶v {]km-[IÀ \Ã-h®w ]Wn-sb-Sp-¡p-¶p. Htc hmÀ¯-bpsS Xe-s¡«v hnhn-[-]-{X§-fn hcp-¶Xv {i²n-¨m CXv a\-Ên-em-¡mw. `mj-bn-eq-sS-bpw, \nd-¯n-eq-sSbpw Hmtcm Xe-s¡«pw BIÀj-Wo-b-ambnNn{Xo-I-cn-¡m-\mWv ]{X-§Ä aÕ-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. Xmsg-h-cp¶ hmÀ¯sb hmb-\-¡mcs\s¡mണ്ട് hmbn-¸n-¡p-hm³ t]m¶ £aX Xe-s¡-«n-\p-ണ്ടmbncn¡Ww. CXns\_nPp.-kn.]n tNmwkvIn-b³ `mjm k¦-ev]-t¯mSv tNÀ¯p-h-bv¡p-¶p. Xe-s¡«v B `mjm-{]-tbm-K-¯nsâ Hcp D]-cn-L-S-\-bmWv (Surface structure) AXnsâ B´-c-L-S-\-bmWv (deep structure) NphsS hcp¶ hnhcWw. ]nW-dmbnhnP-bs\ {]Xn-tNÀ¯v kn.-n.sF Ipä-]{Xw kaÀ¸n-¨p-sh¶Xv hmÀ¯-bpsS B´-cnIL-S-\-bm-sW¶v ]dbmw. B´-cn-I-L-S-\-bv¡p-ta-epÅ D]cn Bhn-jv¡m-c-§-fmWv Ct¸mÄ \½psSam[y-a-§-fn-se-¼mSpw \S-¶p-sImണ്ട-n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv . (_nPp kn.-]n. am[y-a-§-fnse aebmfw F¶ teJ-\-¯n \n¶v).


`mjsb NnÓ-h¡-cn¨v (semiotic) D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶Xv ]{X-`m-j-bpsS {]tXy-I-X-bm-Wv. `mj am{X-aà hÀ®-§fpw hnhn[ t^mണ്ടp-Ifpw (Font) CXn-\mbn ]{X-§Ä Xnc-sª-Sp-¡p-¶p. \nc-h[n cq]-I-§sf (metaphors) hfsc IrXy-ambn ]{X-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p.

]mN-I-hm-X-I-¯nsâ hne IqSnbXn\v FcnXobn F¶v Xe-s¡«v sImSp¯v hmÀ¯ \ÂIn-b-Xn-eqsS P\-§-fpsS am\-kn-Im-h-Ø-sb-IqSn {]I-Sn-¸n-¡m³ ae-bmf-¯nse Hcp {]apJ ]{X-¯n\p km[n¨p. tIm¬{KÊv Xnc-sª-Sp-¡-s¸«p F¶henb t^mണ്ടn(Font)epÅ Xe-s¡-«n hmNIw IÀ½Wnbmbn {]-tbm-Kn-¨n-cn¡p-¶p. P\-§-fm tIm¬{KÊv Xnc-sª-Sp-¡s¸«Xnse IÀ¯m-hns\ Hgn-hm¡n tIm¬{KÊv Xnc-sª-Sp¡-s¸«p F¶v Ipdp-¡nb-t¸mÄ Xe-s¡«v sNdp-Xm¡n F¶m tIm¬{K-Ên\v {][m\yw \evIn hmÀ¯- \evIm³ ]{Xm[n-]À¡v km[n-¨p.

Nmന്ദ്രbms\ Nന്ദ്ര\n Cd-¡n-b-Xn-eqsS a\p-jysâ Ign-hn-s\-¡qSn hmÀ¯-bn Btcm-]n-¡m-\m-bn. tIh-es¯ {]tbm-P-I-am¡n {]tbm-Kn-¨-t¸mÄ വാN-I-¯n Hfn-¸n¨p sh¨Xv ]pd-¯p-Nm-Sn-¡m³ teJ-Isâ `mjbv¡v Ign-ªp. ae-bm-f- ]{X-§-fnse kvt]mÀSvkv t]Pnse `mj bp²w hÀ®n¡p¶Xv t]mse-bm-Wv. {In¡-än {ioe-¦sb Xpc-¯n-b-Xpw, {_ko-ensâ Xncn-¨-Snbpw, tIcf-¯nsâ ac-W-¡-fn-bpw, aª¸-Sbpw FÃmw hocy-¯nsâ `mj-bn {]tbm-Kn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p.Bi-¦-I-fpsS ImÀta-L-§Ä tKmÄ ag-bmbn s]bvXp. C¯-c-¯nepÅ Hcp`mj kvt]mÀSvkv ae-bmfs¯ Imhy-ß-I-am-¡p-¶p. cmh-W³ tIm-«-bn k¨n³c£-I³ F¶ hmÀ¯-bnse HuNnXyw Ifn \S-¶Xv sImfw-t_m-bn-em-Ip-t¼m-gm-Wv.tIm¬sSIvÌv (context) IqSn a\-Ên-em-Ip-t¼mÄ sSIvÌn\v (Text) Dണ്ടmIp¶ NmcpX hmb-\-¡m-cs\ kzm[o-\n-¡p-¶p. C´y³ tlm¡n hSn-]n-Sn-¨Xpw Gjy³ sKbnwknന് Xncn-sX-fn-ªXpw apJy-a-{´n-bpsS hm¡v Pe-tc-J-bm-bXpw]{X-¯n \ntXy\ D]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ ae-bm-f-ssieo(idioms) {]tbm-K-§Ä¡v DZm-l-c-W-§-fm-Wv. C´ytXmäp-t]mbn F¶ hmIy-¯n tXm¡p-I F¶ {Inbm-\m-a-¯n t]mhpI F¶v A\p-{]-tbmKw tNÀ¯v Fgp-Xn-b-t¸mÄ C´y tXmäp F¶v am{X-a-Ã, tXm¡p-sa¶v hnNm-cn-¨n-Ã, tXmäXv IjvS-ambn F¶n-§s\bpÅ AÀ°w hmb-\-¡m-c-\n P\n-¸n-¡p-hm³ kvt]mÀSvkv teJ-I\v km[n-¨p.sImണ്ടeok Cs¶¯pw F¶ Xe-s¡-«n sIm-ണ്ടeo-ksb FÃm-hÀ¡pwAdnbmw F¶ [mc-W-bn-emWv ]{Xw hmÀ¯ \evIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. sImണ്ടeok Ata-cn-¡-bpsS hntZ-i-Imcy sk{I-«-dn-bm-sW¶pw AhÀ C´y-bn C¶v F¯psa¶pw B Xe-s¡-«n ഉണ്ട് . Fgp-¯p-Im-csâ B hnh-£ hmb-\-¡m-c³ Duln-¨psIm-Å-Ww. Cu hnh-£-bn-emWv `mj-bpsS aÀ½w Ccn-¡p-¶-Xv. Imem-h-Ø, hmWn-Pyw, ImbnIw F¶o Xe-s¡-«p-IÄ¡pw Cu hnh-£- X-s¶. C\n Imem-h-Øsb ]d-bp-¶p. hmWn-Py-s¯-¸än hnh-cn-¡p-¶p, ImbnI hmÀ¯-IÄ BWv Cu t]Pn Fs¶ms¡ hmb-\-¡m-c³ kzbw a\-Ên-em-¡n-sIm-Å-Ww. C¯cw A]qÀ®hmNI-¯n-eqsS k¦oÀ®hmIy-§-fpsS AÀ°s¯ ]{X-§Ä hyÚn-¸n-¡p-¶p.hmN-I-§-fpsS sskkpw AXp-hgn Øehpw ]{X-§Ä¡v em`w.at\m-ca No^v FUn-äÀ sI.-Fw.amXyp-hnsâ \ncym-Ws¯ A\p-tim-Nn¨v At±-ls¯¸än amXr-`q-an amt\-PnMv FUn-äÀ ]n.hn. Nന്ദ്ര³ am[ya temIs¯amÀ¤-Zo]w F¶ apJ-{]-kw-K-¯n hnh-cn-s¨-gp-Xn-b-t¸mÄ. AtX ]{X-¯n H.-F³.hn Ipdp¸v sI.-Fw.-am-Xyp-hns\ hÀ®n-s¨-gp-Xn. cണ്ടpw cണ്ട്coXn-bn hmb-\-¡m-c\v A\p-`-h-th-Zy-am-bn. Cu cണ്ട് `mj-bpw ]{Xhpw P\-§fpw DÄs¡mÅp-¶p.CjvS-apÅXv Xnc-sª-Sp-¡m³ hmb-\-¡m-c\v ]{Xw kzmX{´yw\ÂIp-¶p.

hmcm-´-¸-Xn-¸p-I-fnse Btcm-Ky-hn-jbw ssIImcyw sN¿p-t¼mÄsaUn-¡ÂtSwkv [mcm-f-ambn ]{X-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p. icn-bmb Ub-änw-Kv, ^näv\-tkmsSPohn-¡mw, ico-c-¯nsâ kv{SI¨-À, kao-Ir-Xm-lm-cw FÃmw ChnsS hmbn-¡mw. Ub-_-änIvkpw Ub-änw-Kpw ChnsS `mjo-Ir-X-am-Ip-¶p. Cw¥o-jpw ae-bm-fhpw IeÀ¶pÅ Hcp^näv\kv ae-bmfw ChnsS hmbn-¡mw. ico-c-¯nsâ hÀ®\ CjvS-s¸-Sp¶hsc-¡qSn e£y-am-¡n-bpÅ Fgp¯pw C¯cw ae-bm-f-¯n ഉണ്ട്‌. ^näv\kv ae-bmfwF¶v hnfn-¡p-t¼mÄ AXp tIhew hmsamgn hc-samgn t`Zw hn«v kÀÆ-C-ന്ദ്രി-b-§-sfbpw Xr]vXn-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw hn\n-tbm-Kn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶ ià-amb Hcp hn\n-ab`mj-bmbn amdp-¶p. (tl\ Nന്ദ്ര³, ^näv\kv ae-bmfw F¶ teJ-\-¯n \n¶v).tl\ Nന്ദ്രന്റെ Cu \nco-£Ww ^näv\kv ae-bm-f-¯nsâ BJym-\-X-{´-§-fn-te¡v IS¶p Ib-dp-¶p. hml-\-temIw ssIImcyw sN¿p-t¼mÄ DÅ `mj-bn t^mÀkvt{SmIpw, knen-ണ്ടdpw F©n-\pw, ss{Uhnw-Kpw, IpXn-c-i-àn-bpw, Hs¡ tNÀ¯pÅ Hcp hml-\-`mj ]{X-¯n ImWmw.an¡ hml-\-§-fpsSbpw hÀ®-\-IÄ kv{Xobp-amtbm ]pcp-j-\p-amtbm _Ô-s¸-Sp-¯n-bmWv Fgp-Xp-¶-Xv. AXn-\mÂhml-\-s¯bpw hmN-I-s¯bpw P\-§Ä CjvS-s¸-Sp-¶p. hnh-c-km-t¦-XnI hnZy-Isf-¡p-dn¨v ]d-bp-t¼mgpw C¯cw s{]m^-j-W emwtKz-Pv (Professional language),]{X§Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p. km\nb am\nb t]mse {]mkw Zo£n¨ ]Z-§Ä hmb-\-¡m-c-\n cmhnse Nncn¡pÅ hI \ÂIp-¶p. ChnsS ]{X-`m-j-bn lyqaÀtNÀs¯gp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶p.

Hmtcm hyh-lm-c-t¯bpw (discourse) ssIImcyw sNt¿-ണ്ടn-h-cp-t¼mÄ]{X-§ÄAXn\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb sSIvÌv(Text) hnI-kn-¸n-¡p-¶p. CXmWv aäv am[y-a-§sfAt]-£n¨v ]{X-hmÀ¯-Isf P\-§Ä IqSp-X-embn kzoI-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. `mj-bnse \ne-hn-epÅ ]Z- §-fn amäw Dണ്ടm-¡m-\pw, Iq«n-t¨À¡m\pw AXv P\-§-fn-te¡v thK-¯n hnX-cWw sN¿phm\pw ]{X-§Ä¡v km[n-¡p-¶p.Xnc-sª-Sp-¸ns\ sXscsªSp-¸m- ¡m\pw ]nt¶m-¡s¯]n¶m-¡-’-am-¡m\pw apt¶m-¡s¯ ap¶m-¡-am-¡m\pw AXv P\-§-fn- te¡v F¯n-¡m\pw AwKo-I-cn-¸n-¡m\pw kz´wteJ-I³amÀ¡v km[n-¨p. ]{X-§-fpsS kmÀÆ-Im-en-I-amb Cu kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bmW v kaq-l-¯n ]{X-§fpsS {]k-àn¡v \nZm-\w. C¯-c-¯n ]{X-`m-j-sb-¸än DÅ  ]T\w \ho\ ae-bmf`mjm ]T-\-ambpw AXp-hgn Hcp kwkv¡m-cs¯ ]Tn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ SqÄ Bbpw amdp-¶p. sam¯-¯n FÃm-¯n-s\bpw kw{]o-X-am-¡m-\pÅ hym]-\-ti-jnbpw hym]m-c-ti-jnbpw ]{X-§sf P\-{]nb kwkv¡mc \nÀ½mW bqWnäm¡n amäp-¶p. C¯-c-¯n ]{X-`mjm ]T\w `mj-bp-tSbpw kwkv¡m-c-¯ntâbpw hnhn[ Xe-§-fn \n¶pÅ ]T-\-ambn amtd-ണ്ടXp-ണ്ട്.


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